Individuals with Social Protection (Employment Insurance)


Proportion of the population accessing social protection (employment insurance).

“Employment Insurance (EI) provides regular benefits to individuals who lose their jobs through no fault of their own (for example, due to shortage of work, seasonal or mass lay-offs) and are available for and able to work, but can’t find a job.” Statistics Canada

Why This Matters

“Unemployment imposes costs on societies and individuals. Governments lose tax revenue and consumer spending that drives the economy while lost wages, a loss of purpose or a sense of disenfranchisement are just a few consequences for individuals. And historically it has been the case that private markets for insurance are incomplete and cannot fully cover the contingency of unemployment, underscoring the need for government intervention.

“…[P]ublic provision of insurance creates adverse incentives which governments must balance. Policy design plays an important role mitigating adverse incentives.

“Active labour market policies (ALMP) are programs and policies that help unemployed individuals find work. They take a variety of forms such as training programs, employment incentives, direct job creation, start-up incentives and job search assistance. Thus, they help people develop skills, gain experience and look for work. At the same time, active policies, by making benefits dependent on participant engagement, limit the adverse incentive effects of passive unemployment, such as increasing the duration of unemployment, discouraging labour mobility, and fostering seasonal work. Moreover, ALMP improve the efficiency of the economy as they facilitate the reallocation of labour from contracting to expanding sectors. ALMP can help people move from one sector to another in contrast to passive policies that provide assistance to persons in declining sectors and may impede the reallocation of labour from declining to expanding sectors (Gunderson 2003).” Michael Brisson (2015) Accessed November 8, 2019

Measurement and Limitations

The data includes almost all individuals who filed an individual T1 tax return (some late filers are not included), and to this data Canada Child tax Benefit recipients are added. From these records, in addition to tax filers, non-filing spouses, partners and children are determined. When complete, the data is approximately 95% of the population and is left unweighted and unadjusted. Please note that sampling methodology does not apply to this survey. For more information about this indicator see Statistics Canada detailed information for 2016.

In Peterborough (CMA) in 2016, 6,830 people or 5.47 of individuals were using social protection (Government Employment Insurance). This was a 0.71 percentage point increase over 2014 when 6.18 percent of individuals were using social protection. In 2016, the percent of individuals using social protection was 0.27 percentage points higher than the provincial average (5.2 percent) and 2.36 percentage points lower than the national average (7.83 percent).

Data Source

Statistics Canada

Last update: June 2019. Source is updated annually


Gunderson, M. (2003), Active labour market adjustment Policies: what we know and don’t know”, Report prepared for the Ontario Role of Government Panel. As noted in: Michael Brisson (2015) “Employment Insurance and Active Labour Market Policies in Canada

Michael Brisson (2015) “Employment Insurance and Active Labour Market Policies in Canada” Major Research Paper (API 6999) presented to Dr. Miles Corak (Supervisor) and to the Graduate School of Public and International Affairs. Accessed November 8, 2019

Statistics Canada Annual Income Estimates for Census Families and Individuals (T1 Family File)” Accessed November 7, 2019

Statistics Canada “EI Regular Benefits – Overview” Accessed November 8, 2019


Individuals with Social Protection (Employment Insurance) in the Sustainable Development Goals

Click on the SDG to reveal more information

1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere
1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

1. End poverty in all its forms everywhere

Extreme poverty rates have been cut by more than half since 1990. While this is a remarkable achievement, one in five people in developing regions still live on less than $1.90 a day, and there are millions more who make little more than this daily amount, plus many people risk slipping back into poverty.

Poverty is more than the lack of income and resources to ensure a sustainable livelihood. Its manifestations include hunger and malnutrition, limited access to education and other basic services, social discrimination and exclusion as well as the lack of participation in decision-making. Economic growth must be inclusive to provide sustainable jobs and promote equality.

Related Individuals with Social Protection (Employment Insurance) Targets


By 2030, reduce at least by half the proportion of men, women and children of all ages living in poverty in all its dimensions according to national definitions


Implement nationally appropriate social protection systems and measures for all, including floors, and by 2030 achieve substantial coverage of the poor and the vulnerable